It has been a while since our last post but as we are getting back up to speed to restart our work, our email engines are churning again with a lot of queries and questions from clients and the public on PCI-DSS, ISMS, ITSM, GDPR matters. We even have an odd question or two popping up regarding COVID-19 and how to secure against that virus. I don’t know. It’s a multi-billion dollar question which nobody can answer.

So while all these things are going, the one relentless constant we are still facing is: PCI-DSS deadlines. Despite the worldwide pandemic, we still get clients telling us they need to get their certificate renewed, their ASV scans done, their penetration testing sorted within x number of days. The reality of course is a bit more difficult. For example, once you have tested or scan, how does one remediate the issue when we cannot even get onsite to do proper testing? What about the development team, or the patching process, or the testing procedures and change management that needs to be done? The reality is simply, due to the pandemic, DELAYS will occur.

One of the main concerns are ASV scans, because ASV scans need to be done quarterly, there may be actual issues in remediation delays that may cause the company to miss the quarter.

How do we overcome this?

The main step is to always check with your QSA on this. I cannot repeat this ENOUGH. An organisation undergoing PCI-DSS, no matter what your size, especially if you are undergoing QSA certified program (Level 1 or Level 2 SAQ signoff from QSA) – ENGAGE your QSA to assist you. The QSA isn’t just supposed to come in at the end of your certification cycle, start poking holes into all your problems and tell you – you can’t pass because you missed our your internal VA back in Quarter 1. Or state your segmentation testing is insufficient at the end of your certification cycle. Or tell you that your hardening procedures are inadequate, with 1 month left to your certification cycle. The QSA needs to be in engagement at all times – or at the very least on a quarterly basis. Get them to do a healthcheck for you – all QSAs worth their salt should be able to do this. The mistake here is to treat your QSA as just an auditor and not onboard them throughout your certification cycle. An example is in the supplementary document from the council “Penetration-Testing-Guidance-v1_1” shows the possible involvement of the QSA:

In order to effectively validate the segmentation methodologies, it is expected that the penetration tester has worked with the organization (or the organization’s QSA) to clearly understand all methodologies in use in order to provide complete coverage when testing.

Pg 10 PCI Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) v1.1

It’s essentially critical to understand the relationship the QSA must have and the involvement they have, especially in the scoping part of PCI-DSS. The problem we often see is there is a disconnect between the company and their QSAs in terms of scope, or expectation, or evidences, which generally leads to A. LOT. OF. PAIN.

For ASV scans, a QSA may also provide ASV services provided these are properly controlled that there is proper segregation of duties and independence within the QSA/ASV company itself.

However, we have also done many companies whereby we provide the ASV scan and another QSA does the audit. Or the other way where we provide the QSA audit, and ASV is done by another company.

There is one example whereby we were auditing a company, and the ASV scans were done by another firm. We have been engaged from the start on a quarter basis and we highlighted to them that their Q1 ASV scan isn’t clean. We got on a call with the ASV company and worked together to ensure that the next quarter, these non compliant items would be remediated. So even with Q1 ASV not passed, at the end as QSA we still accepted the PCI recertification. PCI Council addressed this in FAQ 1152 – “Can an entity be PCI DSS compliant if they have performed quarterly scans, but do not have four “passing” scans?”

Without early engagement of the QSA and ASV, there would be a lot of problems once the recert audit comes around. In this case we could set the proper expectation early in the cycle for the customer to address.

Another possible instance is whereby the ASV themselves can pass a quarter scan with non compliant findings with compensating controls. This procedure is detailed out in section 7.8 of the ASV program guide, whereby within the quarter scan itself, before the expiry of that quarter, compensating controls are provided and validated and the ASV is able to issue an acceptable report for that quarter. This is important, because QSAs like to see 4 quarterly clean reports, and they throw a tantrum if they don”t get what they want. So in short, for ASV scans, do the following in this order:

a) Remediate all and get a clean report for the quarter; or

b) If you have non compliant for the quarter, engage your ASV, provide acceptable compensating controls, and attempt (not influence) with the ASV to accept/validate these controls and provide a clean report for the quarter but documented under Appendix B of the scan report summary; or

c) If for whatever reason, a clean report cannot be provided for the quarter, work closely with the ASV and the QSA to ensure that at least the next quarter or quarter after next remediation is correctly done. This is tricky because once the quarter report is out, it’s out of the ASV’s hands and into the QSA – on whether they can accept these reports or not. You can hang on to FAQ 1152 – but remember, FAQs are NOT the standard, so you are essentially in the hands of the QSA.

Those are your options for ASV, if there are any delays. DO NOT, in ANY CIRCUMSTANCE, MISS Your quarterly scan. Missing your scan is NOT THE SAME as getting a non compliant report. Missing your scan means there is no recourse but to delay your certification until you can get your 4 quarters in.

Finally before we sign off – let’s clarify here what a ‘quarter’ means. Some clients consider ‘quarterly’ scans to be their actual calendar year quarter. No. It’s not. Essentially a quarter is 3 months of a cycle of 12 months compliance year. A compliance year is not your calendar year (it could be, but it doesn’t have to be). So let’s divide this into two scenarios:

a) Where the ASV scans are required for the compliance year

In the case – the compliance year first needs to be defined, and this is usually done by identifying the signoff date of your AoC. For example if the QSA signed off your certification on April 1st, then that is where your quarter 1 begins. April – June; July – September; October – December; January – March. 4 quarters. You need to perform your ASV scan within the quarter, resolve the issues, and get the clean report out. This is CRITICAL to understand. Because many organisation fail this portion where they do not even perform any scans for the first few quarters and only pick up their PCI-DSS again mid way through and everyone is like: “Oops.” So while drinks and celebration are in the works once you signoff the AoC – your quarter 1 has also begun, so don’t drink too much yet.

So know your quarters. Start your scan early in the quarter, rescans must be done after remediation, and in case you need compensating controls, you need to get ALL THESE DONE within the quarter. If you perform your rescans in the next quarter, you are doomed. You MAY perform the rescan in this quarter and the clean report comes out next quarter for the current quarter – but all scans must be done within the quarter itself.

a) Where we have NO clue when the quarters are

As funny as this may sound (in a tragic way), there are many instances where we (wearing the ASV hat) gets plopped into situations where the client HAS NO CLUE when their compliance quarters are. I don’t know why this occurs. When I request them to check their AoC, or their QSAs for guidance, some can’t provide it. This is as great a mystery as the Sphinx itself. We call these internally, ‘Orphaned ASV scans’. These are projects where we are given the IPs and just told to shut up and scan the IPs. In this case because we onboard all ASV scans with quarters to define when we need to remind our customers, or escalate issues if the quarter runs out – we generally just use the date of the scan as a reference for quarters. So for instance, we provide a clean scan on April 31st. Since they are orphaned scans, without a compliance year/cycle for reference, we use the date of the scan report itself – meaning this scan expires 31st July.

By and large, we are seeing less and less of these orphaned ASV scans issues. Because QSAs these days are more engaged with customers and their customer service has also improved, it’s rare we find a client who isn’t aware of these cyclical requirements. Most clients, not just the large ones, are serviced by QSAs who themselves are reinventing themselves not just as auditors coming in once a year to observe and audit, but provide separate, independent units/consultants to assist healthchecks and support as well to enquiries pertaining to clients.

And a final note on this article – when we refer to ‘QSA’ or ‘ASV’ under our umbrella, we mean ControlCase International (QSA and ASV), whom PKF have been working with for close to a decade. As to why we do not want to become QSAs ourselves, we take independence and segregation of audit and operations seriously, as accounting and audit is our DNA. An article has been written at lenght on this:
http://www.pkfavantedge.com/it-audit/pci-dss-so-why-arent-we-qsa/

So – drop us a note at pcidss@pkfmalaysia.com for any queries on ASV scans, PCI-DSS or compliance in general. And no, we don’t know how to solve the resolve the Coronavirus yet, but I hope we get there soon. Stay safe and stay well!